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Source Separation and Treament of Anthropogenic Urine (WERF Report INFR4SG09b)
Sharvelle, S. AND L. Roesner. Source Separation and Treament of Anthropogenic Urine (WERF Report INFR4SG09b). Water Environment Research Foundation, Alexandria, VA, 2011.
♦ Describes the current global status of urine source separation and treatment technologies,pilot projects, and research groups. ♦ Shows that urine treatment can result in a safe, nutrient-rich, micropollutant-free fertilizer. ♦ Illustrates that urine diversion toilets and storage tanks have been developed for urban water management to the point that inclusion into larger pilot projects is feasible with proper oversight. ♦ Assesses the potential for urine diversion to reduce the energy requirements in wastewater treatment plants, and to improve water quality by allowing for more efficient removal of nutrients and micropollutants. ♦ Advises a path forward in the development of urine source separation and treatment in the U.S.
Abstract: Anthropogenic urine, although only 1% of domestic wastewater flow, is responsible for 50-80% of the nutrients and a substantial portion of the pharmaceuticals and hormones present in the influent to wastewater treatment plants. Source separation and treatment of urine enables recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus, thus largely minimizing the energy requirements for nutrient removal at wastewater treatment plants, allowing for capture and reuse of nutrients, and creating a more efficient means for removal of pharmaceuticals and hormones. The goal of this research was to investigate the global status of urine source separation and treatment technologies and to advise a path forward for further research. Results from the literature review validate urine source separation as a means to recover nutrients, conserve water, and decrease overall energy requirements for both nutrient and micropollutant removal as compared to conventional wastewater treatment. Research has matured beyond the laboratory scale to include pilot projects in office buildings, private homes,and schools. Continued research is necessary to create marketable products, to develop life cycle and/or cost-benefit analysis, to determine social acceptance in the U.S. as most surveys and projects have been conducted in Europe, and to assess the most appropriate means and setting for urine treatment. [NOTE: The link below connects to a WERF site where the Final Report can be downloaded for free, after registering at the WERF site. For some projects the Executive Summary is available and can be downloaded for free without registering on the WERF site.]
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (EXTRAMURAL DOCUMENT/CONTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH