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Costs of Arsenic Removal Technologies for Small Water Systems: U.S. EPA Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration Program
Wang, L. AND A. S. Chen. Costs of Arsenic Removal Technologies for Small Water Systems: U.S. EPA Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration Program. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-11/090, 2011.
To inform the public.
As part of the Arsenic Rule Implementation Research Program, between July 2003 and July 2011, the U.S. environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. The projects were conducted to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of arsenic removal technologies selected from demonstration and to determine their effects on water quality in distribution systems. A key objective was to collect cost and performance data that might be used by small water systems, engineering firms, and state agencies to make informed decisions on selecting appropriate arsenic treatment technologies to achieve the revised arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ug/L. While results from each demonstration are documented in individual technology performance evaluation reports, this report summarizes cost data across all demonstrations grouped by the technology type. For each type of technologies, a brief over view of demonstration sites, demonstration technologies, system designs and configurations, and system operations was provided to assist in understanding relevant cost data.