You are here:
CADMIUM SOLUBILITY IN PADDY SOILS: EFFECTS OF SOIL OXIDATION, METAL SULFIDES AND COMPETITIVE IONS.
De Livera, J., M. J. McLaughlin, G. M. Hettiarachchi, J. K. Kirby, AND D. G. BEAK. CADMIUM SOLUBILITY IN PADDY SOILS: EFFECTS OF SOIL OXIDATION, METAL SULFIDES AND COMPETITIVE IONS. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, Netherlands, 409(8):1489-1497, (2011).
Journal article for Science of the Total Environment
Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element for human nutrition and is an agricultural soil contaminant. Cadmium solubility in paddy soils affects Cd accumulation in the grain of rice. This is a human health risk, exacerbated by the fact that rice grains are deficient in iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) for human nutrition. To find ways of limiting this potential risk, we investigated factors influencing Cd solubility relative to Fe and Zn during pre-harvest drainage of paddy soils, in which soil oxidation is accompanied by the grain-filling stage of rice growth. This was simulated in temperature-controlled “reaction cell” experiments by first excluding oxygen to incubate soil suspensions anaerobically, then inducing aerobic conditions. In treatments without sulfur addition, the ratios of Cd:Fe and Cd:Zn in solution increased during the aerobic phase while Cd concentrations were unaffected and the Fe and Zn concentrations decreased. However, in treatments with added sulfur (as sulfate), up to 34 % of sulfur (S) was precipitated as sulfide minerals during the anaerobic phase and the Cd:Fe and Cd:Zn ratios in solution during the aerobic phase were lower than for treatments without S addition. When S was added, Cd solubility decreased whereas Fe and Zn were unaffected. When soil was spiked with Zn the Cd:Zn ratio was lower in solution during the aerobic phase, due to higher Zn concentrations. Decreased Cd:Fe and Cd:Zn ratios during the grain filling stage could potentially limit Cd enrichment in paddy rice grain due to competitive ion effects for root uptake.