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Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources
PATTERSON, C. L., A. Anderson, R. Sinha, N. Muhammad, AND D. Pearson. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, 138(1):48-57, (2012).
To inform the public.
Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can prevent DBP formation by removing color and NOM before chlorination. Research studies were conducted on lake water in Minnesota and dechlorinated potable water spiked with NOM in Ohio using a nanofiltration system manufactured by Membrane Specialists, Inc., called the Fyne Process. Several types of tubular membranes with various molecular weight cutoffs were studied. The effectiveness of the Fyne Process in producing safe drinking water was gauged by measuring the removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC), color, 2 to 3 micron particles, 3 micron polystyrene latex beads as a surrogate for Cryptosporidium, Bacillus subtilis and Echerichia coli as surrogates for bacteria removal, and MS-2 bacteriophage as a surrogate for virus removal. Results indicated that Fyne Process NF membranes could be used by small system drinking water treatment for DBP precursors and pathogen removal.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH