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Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana
GERON, C. D. AND R. R. ARNTS. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 44(34):4240-4251, (2010).
Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxygenated monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions in all seasons. ?-pinene and ?-pinene were the most abundant emissions, while ?-caryophyllene had the highest sesquiterpene emission rate from this species. ?-phellandrene was the dominant compound emitted from Pinus virginiana, followed by the sesquiterpene ?-caryophyllene. Sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus virginiana have not been reported in the literature previously. Summer sesquiterpene emissions from P. virginiana were nearly as high as monoterpene emissions, but were 4-12 times lower than monoterpene emissions in the other seasons. Oxygenated monoterpenes and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol were emitted at higher rates from Pinus taeda than from Pinus virginiana. Temperature response of the pinenes from Pinus taeda is similar to previously reported values used in emission models, while that for other compounds falls at the lower end of the previously reported range. Temperature response of all compounds from Pinus virginiana is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values from other pine species. There is evidence of light dependence of sesquiterpene emission after accounting for temperature response from both species. This effect is somewhat stronger in Pinus taeda. Bud break, needle expansion, and needle fall (and therefore wind events) seemed to increase monoterpene emission during non-summer seasons. In some instances springtime monoterpene emissions were higher than summertime emissions despite cooler temperatures. Emissions of individual compounds within monoterpene, oxygenated monoterpene, and sesquiterpene classes were highly correlated with each other. Compounds from different classes were much less correlated within each species. This is due to a varying temporal emission patterns for each BVOC class and suggests different production, storage, and emission controls for each. Analysis of enclosure blanks and diurnal patterns indicates that, despite precautions, disturbance due to the enclosure technique may still impact monoterpene emission rate estimates. This did not appear to affect sesquiterpene emissions.
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SEASONAL MONOTERPENE AND SESQUITERPENE EMISSIONS FROM PINUS TAEDA AND PINUS VIRGINIANA Exit