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Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids
MASH, H., K. M. SCHENCK, AND L. Rosenblum. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids. WATER RESEARCH. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, 44(6):1950-1960, (2010).
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Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their synthetic analogs released from agricultural activities and wastewater discharge may be introduced into drinking water sources. The fate of androgenic steroids during drinking water treatment, specifically the use of chlorine for biological control, has not been extensively studied. As such, this study focuses on the hypochlorite oxidation of a select number of androgenic compounds that vary in their structural composition. Where a favorable reaction is observed, we also attempt to describe the product distribution. The results show compounds that possess a ketonic functional group conjugated with a double bond inhibit oxidation by hypochlorite in the absence of biological or indirect oxidative pathways. Oxidative reactivity in the presence of hypochlorite was favorably correlated with the presence of isolated unsaturated carbon bonds and resulted in various transformation products.