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Ceramic Filter for Small System Drinking Water Treatment: Evaluation of Membrane Pore Size and Importance of Integrity Monitoring
Muhammad, N., R. Sinha, E R. KRISHNAN, AND C. L. PATTERSON. Ceramic Filter for Small System Drinking Water Treatment: Evaluation of Membrane Pore Size and Importance of Integrity Monitoring. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, 135(11):1181-1191, (2009).
Ceramic filtration has recently been identified as a promising technology for drinking water treatment in households and small communities. This paper summarizes the results of a pilot-scale study conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Test & Evaluation (T&E) Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, on two ceramic filtration cartridges with pore sizes of 0.05 micrometer (µm) and 0.01 µm to evaluate their ability to remove turbidity and microbiological contaminants such as bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli), Cryptosporidium oocysts, 2.83 µm Polystyrene Latex (PSL) beads (a surrogate for Cryptosporidium) and MS2 bacteriophage (a surrogate for enteric viruses). The results demonstrated that the relatively tighter 0.01 µm cartridge performed significantly better than the 0.05 µm cartridge in removing all the biological contaminants and surrogates. For turbidity removal, the 0.01 µm cartridge performed slightly better than the 0.05 µm cartridge; however, the permeate rate in the 0.01 µm cartridge reduced rapidly at higher feed water turbidity levels indicating that a tighter membrane should only be used with adequate pre-treatment or at low feed water turbidity to prolong membrane life. Microbiological monitoring was identified as a more sensitive indirect integrity monitoring method than turbidity and particle count monitoring to ensure effective treatment of water by ceramic filtration. Both PSL beads and B. subtilis showed potential as effective surrogates for Cryptosporidium, with B. subtilis showing higher degree of conservatism.
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CERAMIC FILTER FOR SMALL SYSTEM DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: EVALUATION OF MEMBRANE PORE SIZE AND IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRITY MONITORING Exit
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION