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DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA
BATTELLE. DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/R-07/006 (NTIS PB2007-114485), 2007.
to inform the public
The purpose of this project was to evaluate the technical and cost performance of emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI) technology when applied to DNAPL contaminants in the saturated zone. This demonstration was conducted at Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL, where chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), mainly trichloroethylene (TCE), are present in the subsurface as DNAPL. EZVI can be used to enhance the destruction of chlorinated DNAPL in source zones by creating intimate contact between the DNAPL and the nanoscale iron particles. The EZVI is composed of surfactant, biodegradable oil, water, and zero-valent iron particles, which form emulsion particles (or micelles) that contain the iron particles in water surrounded by an oil-liquid membrane. In measurements conducted by the vendor, mass flux of dissolved TCE in groundwater, as measured in the extraction transect on the downgradient side of the plot, declined from 1,826 to 810 mmoles/day due to the EZVI treatment. During the same period, mass flux of cis-1,2-DCE increased from 83 to 438 mmoles/ day; mass flux of VC increased from 0 to 143 mmoles/day; and mass flux of ethene increased from 0 to 69 mmoles/day. The decrease in TCE mass flux could have been caused either by a decrease in the total TCE/DNAPL mass in the plot, or through dissolution (and sequestration) of total TCE/DNAPL in the vegetable oil component of the EZVI. The mass flux of TCE degradation products increased, indicating that some TCE was being degraded, either through biotic or abiotic means. The increase in cis-1,2-DCE and VC mass fluxes may be attributed primarily to biologically induced reductive dehalogenation caused by the vegetable oil, and secondarily to abiotic reduction caused by the iron. The increase in ethene can be attributed to either abiotic (zero-valent iron-driven) or biologically-driven reactions.
URLs/Downloads:DEMONSTRATION OF IN SITU DEHALOGENATION OF DNAPL THROUGH INJECTION OF EMULSIFIED ZERO-VALIENT IRON AT LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 IN CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, FLORIDA
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Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (SITE DOCUMENT/REPORT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY
LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS MANAGEMENT BRANCH