You are here:
ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES
HUTCHINS, S. R., M. V. WHITE, F. M. HUDSON, AND D. D. FINE. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 41(3):738-744, (2007).
Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which are used for land application. Lagoons associated with swine, poultry, and cattle operations were sampled at three locations each for direct analysis for estrogens by GC/ MS/MS and estrogen conjugates by LC/MS/MS. Estrogen conjugates were also analyzed indirectly by first subjecting the same samples to enzyme hydrolysis. Solids from centrifuged samples were extracted for free estrogens to estimate total estrogen load. Total free estrogen levels (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol) were generally higher in swine primary (1000-21000 ng/L), followed by poultry primary (1800-4000 ng/L), dairy secondary (370-550 ng/L), and beef secondary (22-24 ng/L) whole lagoon samples. Swine and poultry lagoons contained levels of 17α-estradiol comparable to those of 17β-estradiol. Confirmed estrogen conjugates included estrone-3-sulfate (2-91 ng/L), 17β-estradiol-3-sulfate (8-44 ng/L), 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate (141-182 ng/L), and 17β-estradiol-17-sulfate (72-84 ng/L) in some lagoons. Enzymatic hydrolysis indicated the presence of additional unidentified estrogen conjugates not detected by the LC/MS/MS method. In most cases estrogen conjugates accounted for at least a third of the total estrogen equivalents. Collectively, these methods can be used to better determine estrogen loads from CAFO operations, and this research shows that estrogen conjugates contribute significantly to the overall estrogen load, even in different types of CAFO lagoons.