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EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR IN SITU CLEANUP OF DNAPL CONTAMINATED SITES
Grubb, D. G. AND N. Sitar. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR IN SITU CLEANUP OF DNAPL CONTAMINATED SITES. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-94/120, 1994.
Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquids poses one of the greatest remedial challenges in the field of environmental engineering. Denser-than-water non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are especially problematic due to their low water solubility, high density, and capillary forces arising from interfacial tension between the DNAPLs and water. As a result, conventional pump-and-treat technologies have met poor success in remediation of DNAPL contaminated aquifers. In fact, in certain situations, conventional pump-and-treat methods may actually extend existing contamination into previously uncontaminated areas. The problems associated with current pump-and-treat remedial approaches have served as the impetus to develop alternative technologies to accelerate in-situ DNAPL contamination remediation. This report provides a review and technical evaluation of in-situ technologies for remediation of DNAPL contamination occurring below the ground-water table. Various in-situ technologies are reviewed and are evaluated on the basis of their theoretical background, field implementation, level of demonstration and performance, waste, technical and site applicability/limitations, and cost and availability.