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SUMMARY PAPER: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE SOIL
U.S. EPA. SUMMARY PAPER: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE SOIL. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/540/S-93/502, 1993.
The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. In an attempt to make the content of these documents available to a wider audience, RSKERL is developing a series of Summary Papers which are condensed versions of the original documents. In situ bioremediation of subsurface soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that, in certain cases, can meet the goal of achieving a permanent cleanup at hazardous waste sites. Consideration of such alternatives is encouraged by the EPA for implementing its requirements at Superfund sites. In many cases, in situ bioremediation techniques can be used in conjunction with chemical and physical treatment processes (i.e., "treatment trains") as effective means for comprehensive site-specific remediation. Bioremediation has been shown to be effective in reducing overall mass of a variety of organic contaminants. Full scale systems have been utilized to remediate soil contaminated with both crude and refined petroleum hydrocarbons (i.e., diesel fuel, gasoline, etc.) and wood treating chemicals (i.e., reosote and pentachlorophenol). To date, bioremediation has not been shown to effect significant removal of highly structured and insoluble organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.