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EVALUATING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS (P2P) III: AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL FOR SCREENING IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN
PENNINGTON, D. W., JANE CRUM BARE, R. KNODEL, G. CARROLL, AND T. M. MARTIN. EVALUATING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS (P2P) III: AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL FOR SCREENING IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN. R. Jain; S.K. Sikdar (ed.), CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 5(2):70-86, (2003).
P2P is a computer-based tool that supports the comparison of process and product alternatives in terms of environmental impacts. This tool provides screening-level information for use in process design and in product LCA. Twenty one impact categories and data for approximately 3000 chemicals are represented in the default database of the new release, P2P Mark III. These data help identify which emissions may require further, more sophisticated, characterization in the different impact categories. In this paper we primarily focus on the PBT methodology adopted for the classification of chemicals in the context of ecotoxicological impacts. This classification methodology is cross compared with a characterization approach that provides a more complete model-based representation of the source to effect mechanism, but for fewer chemicals. To ensure that the quantity of the emission, and not just chemical hazard, is taken into acount the comparison is based on a case study for the production of BDO. Insights are presented independently for both the chemical processing stage, as well as from a broader life cycle perspective.