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CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS
Eastern Research Group, Inc. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/625/R-96/008 (NTIS PB97-130835), 1996.
Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed. Failure analysis has shown that to a high degree of probability, seals, valves, and fittings can fail as a result of overheating, mechanical stress, and changes in ambient temperature. Evaporator failure can be caused by foaming and entrainment. When considering a moderate degree of probability of failure, relief valves can fail as a result of overpressure during startups, upsets, and shutdowns, as well as plugging of piping and membrane modules due to solids buildup. Lower probability of failure can be attributed to freezing and miscellaneous mechanical failures.