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ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING: EFFECTS ON METAL CONCENTRATIONS
Sorg*, T J., M R. Schock*, AND D A. Lytle*. ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING: EFFECTS ON METAL CONCENTRATIONS. JOURNAL OF AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION. AWWA Internet, Denver, CO, 91(8):85-97, (1999).
A corrosion control pipe loop study to evaluate the effect of ion exchange water softening on metal leaching from household plumbing materials was conducted on two different water qualities having different pH's and hardness levels. The results showed that removing hardness ions with a household water softener did not lead to a pattern of higher metal leaching from various home plumbing materials containing lead, copper and zinc. Furthermore, the water softener did not have a detrimental impact on several significant water quality parameters that influence metallic solubility and the rate of corrosion: pH, total inorganic carbon (TIC), dissolved oxygen, chlorine, temperature, and ortho-phosphate.