Science Inventory

DEVELOPING AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY

Citation:

Edwards, L. C., H. S. Freeman, AND L D. Claxton. DEVELOPING AZO AND FORMAZAN DYES BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: SALMONELLA MUTAGENICITY. MUTATION RESEARCH 546(1-2):17-28, (2004).

Description:

Abstract
In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron-complexed azo and formazan dyes were reported. In this regard, it was shown that in certain cases iron could be substituted for the traditionally used metals, chromium and cobalt, without having an adverse effect on dye stability. While these results suggested that the iron analogs were potential replacements for the commercially used chromium and cobalt prototypes, characterization of potentially adverse effects of the new dyes was deemed an essential step in their further development. With this in mind, the present paper provides results using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay to determine the mutagenicity of some important commercial metal complexed dyes, their unmetallized forms, and the corresponding iron-complexed analogs. The study compared 6 unmetallized azo dyes, 6 commercial cobalt- or chromium-complexed azo dyes, 6 iron-complexed azo dyes, 6 unmetallized formazan dyes, and 6 iron-complexed formazan dyes. The results of this study suggest that the mutagenicity of the unmetallized dye precursors plays a role in determining the mutagenicity of the iron-complexes. For the monoazo dye containing a nitro group, metal complex formation using iron or chromium decreased or removed mutagenicity in TA100; however, little reduction in mutagenicity was noted in TA98. For the formazan dye containing a nitro group, metal-complex formation using iron increased mutagenicity. Results varied for metal-complex formation of azo and formazan dyes without nitro groups but, in general, the metal-complexed dyes based on mutagenic ligands were also mutagenic, while those dyes based on nonmutagenic ligands were nonmutagenic

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Product Published Date: 02/26/2004
Record Last Revised: 12/22/2005
Record ID: 76355

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

ENVIRONMENTAL CARCINOGENESIS DIVISION

CELLULAR TOXICOLOGY BRANCH