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GENOTOXICITY OF BIOREMEDIATED SOILS FROM THE REILLY TARSITE, ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA
Hughes, T. J., L D. Claxton, L Brooks, S. Warren, R. Brenner, AND F. Kremer. GENOTOXICITY OF BIOREMEDIATED SOILS FROM THE REILLY TARSITE, ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES 106(6):1427-1433, (1998).
An in vitro approach was used to measure the genotoxicity of creosote-contaminated soil before and after four bioremediation processes. The soil was taken from the Reilly Tar site, a closed Superfund site in Saint Louis Park, Minnesota. The creosote soil was bioremediated in bioslurry, biopile, compost, and land treatment, which were optimized for effective treatment. Mutagenicity profiles of dichloromethane extracts of the five soils were determined in the Spiral technique of the Salmonella assay with seven tester strains. Quantitative mutagenic responses in the plate incorporation technique were then determined in the most sensitive strains, YG1041 and YG1042. Mutagenic potency (revertants per microgram extract) in YG1041 suggested that compost, land treatment, and untreated creosote soil extracts were moderately mutagenic with Arochlor-induced rat liver (S9) but were nonmutagenic without S9. However, the bioslurry extract was strongly mutagenic and the biopile extract was moderately mutagenic either with or without S9. A similar trend was obtained in strain YG1042. The strong mutagenic activity in the bioslurry extract was reduced by 50% in TA98NR, which suggested the presence of mutagenic nitrohydrocarbons. Variation in reproducibility was 15% or less for the bioassay and extraction procedures. Bioavailability of mutagens in the biopile soil was determined with six solvents; water-soluble mutagens accounted for 40% of the total mutagenic activity and they were stable at room temperature. The mutagenic activity in the bioslurry and biopile samples was due to either the processes themselves or to the added sludge/manure amendments. The in vitro approach was effective in monitoring bioremediated soils for genotoxicity and will be useful in future laboratory and in situ studies