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EFFECTS OF A COASTAL GOLF COMPLEX ON WATER QUALITY, PERIPHYTON, AND SEAGRASS.
Lewis, M A., R. G. Boustany, D D. Dantin, R L. Quarles, J C. Moore, AND R S. Stanley. EFFECTS OF A COASTAL GOLF COMPLEX ON WATER QUALITY, PERIPHYTON, AND SEAGRASS. ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY 53(1):154-162, (2002).
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a golf course complex on water quality, colonized periphyton and seagrass meadows in adjacent freshwater, near-coastal and wetland areas. The environmental impact of the recreational facility, which uses spray wastewater irrigation, was site-specific and decreased seaward during the two-year study. Concentrations of many trace metals were low or below detection in the surface waters. Mercury and lead, were detected commonly (94 and 81% of total samples). Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were below detection. In contrast, four organophosphorus pesticides were detected in 31 to 94% of the water samples. Atrazine ranged between 0.03 and 0.69 ?g/l. Nutrients and chlorophyll a were elevated in some near-field areas relative to concentrations in reference coastal areas. Chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.2 ?g/l to 161.1 ?g/l. Periphyton biomass and pigment concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) regardless of the colonization area. In contrast, whole plant biomass of Thalassia testudinium Banks ex Konig was reduced significantly in Santa Rosa Sound adjacent to the golf course relative to that in a reference area (P < 0.05); however, the influence of the golf complex on this result could not be determined. The results indicate that the environmental effects of golf courses on primary producers may not be overt and that frequent analysis of different floral communities may be needed to determine any potential impact. Furthermore, the choice of reference areas and, as in most biomonitoring efforts, the number of sampling stations and frequency of sampling are important considerations in the hazard assessment process for these recreational facilities.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION
COASTAL ECOLOGY BRANCH