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FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEPOSITION OF AEROSOLIZED INSULIN
Katz, I. M., J. D. Schroeter, AND T B. Martonen. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEPOSITION OF AEROSOLIZED INSULIN. DIABETES TECHNOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS 3(3):387-397, (2001).
The inhalation of insulin for absorption into the bloodstream via the lung seems to be a promising technique for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. A fundamental issue to be resolved in the development of such insulin aerosol delivery systems is their efficiency (measured, for example, in terms of the amount of insulin absorbed in the blood compared to the total amount loaded into an inhalation device). A primary factor that could cause inefficiency of insulin absorption is deposition in the non-alveolated airways with subsequent removal from the lung via mucociliary clearance. Thus, a better understanding of the spatial distribution of insulin particle deposition in the lung can give guidance to the optimization of inhalation therapy.
A mathematical model was used to study factors affecting the disposition of aerosolized insulin. The model calculates the trajectories of inhaled particles in the lung, and has been validated by data from human subject experiments.
Computer simulations were performed describing a wide range of patient breathing maneuvers. The results indicate significant variations in particle deposition patterns within lungs for different tidal volumes, inspiratory flow rates and breath hold times.
These findings indicate that particle sizes and ventilatory parameters are significant factors determining locations of particle deposition within human lungs, and thus the absorption of insulin into the blood stream via alveloated airways. Mathematical modeling is a valuable technique to complement clinical studies in the targeted delivery of inhaled insulin.