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SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.
Lewis, M A., S S. Foss, P S. Harris, R S. Stanley, AND J C. Moore. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY 20(7):1390-1398, (2001).
The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sediments impacted by a coastal golf course complex. Sediment contaminant concentrations were determined at least twice during the 2-year study period at 14 sampling stations. In addition, a combination of forty-two acute and chronic bioassays were conducted exposing four invertebrate test species to whole sediments and associated pore waters. Overall, the golf course complex had a measurable impact on sediments and associated pore waters. Overall, the golf course complex had a measurable impact on sediment chemical quality. Higher concentrations of several trace metals and organochlorine pesticides were detected in many golf course-associated sediments compared to reference areas; however, concentrations decreased seaward and only a few exceeded proposed numerical sediment quality assessment guidelines. Chromium, zinc and mercury were detected more frequently than other trace metals quantified. DDT and associated metabolites, dieldrin and chlordane were the more commonly detected organic contaminants. Acute toxicity was uncommon and occurred consistently at only one coastal location. In contrast, significant chronic toxicity occurred at several study sites based on the response of two invertebrate test species. It was concluded that the impact of golf courses on sediment quality may not be overt and, consequently, sensitive biological assessment methods, such as chronic studies may be needed to determine adverse effects.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION
COASTAL ECOLOGY BRANCH