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GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE
Lewis, M A., S S. Foss, P S. Harris, AND R S. Stanley. GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE. Presented at 15th Biennial International Estuarine Research Federation Conference, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 25-30, 1999.
The chemical and biological impacts of two coastal golf courses that receive wastewater spray irrigation were determined during a two-year period. A variety of techniques were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and their bioavailability in the sediments. Biological methods included multiple acute and chronic toxicity tests with four species and benthic community analysis of sediments collected from 18 sites. The objectives were to determine the impact of the golf course complex relative to other sources of estuarine stressors and to identify which assessment methods and effect parameters are the more sensitive effect indicators. Concentrations of trace metals including mercury and several pesticides were elevated but concentrations decreased seaward. Acute toxicity was uncommon but mortality was as great as 100% in some areas. Significant growth and reproductive effects of estuarine infaunal invertebrates were noted after 28 days exposure. Structural characteristics of the benthos differed in those areas closest to the golf course. Overall, the impact of the golf courses was spatially limited to near-shore areas and was less than that attributable to direct discharges of wastewaters, Superfund sites and urban and agricultural run-off.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION