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CHEMICAL RISKS TO THREATENED AND ENDANGERED FISH SPECIES AT CONCENTRATIONS BELOW WATER QUALITY CRITERIA: IS IT FEASIBLE TO ENSURE PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS
DeForest, D. K., K. V. Brix, F. J. Dwyer, F L. Mayer Jr., D. R. Buckler, Ingersoll, L. C. Sappington, AND W. J. Adams. CHEMICAL RISKS TO THREATENED AND ENDANGERED FISH SPECIES AT CONCENTRATIONS BELOW WATER QUALITY CRITERIA: IS IT FEASIBLE TO ENSURE PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUALS. Presented at 21st Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Nashville, TN, Nov 12-16, 2000.
The USGS Laboratory in Columbia, Missouri has evaluated the acute sensitivities of 17 threatened and endangered fish species (including three salmonids), to five different chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin). The results of these studies suggest that the species tested are not uniquely sensitive compared to other commonly tested fish species, such as rainbow trout and fathead minnows. Using chemical concentration data for various streams and lakes, we evaluated the direct risks to some of these listed fish species at concentrations below water quality criteria (WQC). Risks are estimated by comparing the probability distributions of exposure concentrations to concentration-response models using the toxicity data developed by the USGS laboratory. Risks are expressed as the probability of affecting individuals from listed fish species. Given the risk estimate results, the adequacy of WQC for protection of listed individual fish is evaluated. Finally, the results are discussed in terms of whether (1) current aquatic toxicity test protocols are adequate for deriving toxicity thresholds protective of individuals and (2) it is feasible and/or reasonable to protect individuals of r-selected listed species.