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Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals
Kodavanti, P., M. Valdez, AND N. Yamashita. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals. Chapter 52, Ramesh Gupta (ed.), Veterinary Toxicology : Basic and Clinical Principles, Third edition. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, , 691-707, (2018).
This book chapter covers both brominated flame retardants and pefluorinated chemicals with regard to physicochemical properties, toxicokinetics, mechanism of action and toxicity. This book chapter gives an overview of these compounds which would be helpful for the scientists as well as students/post-docs. This is for an updated version with new literature related to these two groups of chemicals.
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that use of both BFRs and PFCs has resulted in lives saved by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and also due to their bactericidal (biocidal) properties. These compounds are also believed to contribute greatly to improving people’s quality of life because they are indispensable in the manufacturing of a variety of industrial and consumer products. Widespread use of these chemicals has led to environmental contamination on a global scale. These chemicals are also referred to as persistent organic pollutants because their unique properties, such as hydrophobicity and lipophilicity, lead to their accumulation in biological tissues. In addition, low biodegradability and volatility has led to their long-range transportation via atmospheric and ocean currents, resulting in widespread environmental contamination of animals and humans at sites remote from where these chemicals are produced and used. Exposure to BFRs and/or PFCs may result in serious health effects, including endocrine disruption, reproductive and immune dysfunction, birth defects, developmental neurotoxicity, and certain types of cancers. Exposure to BFRs and PFCs in farm animals is of great concern because these compounds can affect their health as well as serve as a source for human exposure via consumption of contaminated meat and/or dairy products. This chapter discusses BFRs and PFCs and their physicochemical properties, exposure, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and effects, with emphasis on domestic and pet animals.