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Solar Equivalences of the Earth’s Primary Exergy inflows and the Theoretical Basis for Secondary and Tertiary Emergy Flows of the Geobiosphere: New Calculations of Transformities
Campbell, Dan. Solar Equivalences of the Earth’s Primary Exergy inflows and the Theoretical Basis for Secondary and Tertiary Emergy Flows of the Geobiosphere: New Calculations of Transformities. Emergy Synthesis 10. The 10th Biennial Emergy Research Conference, Gainesville, FL, January 24 - 27, 2018.
This research is highly significant and it is being done to support the development and use of emergy characterization factors to be used in life cycle assessment research at NRMRL. This study provides new calculations of the transformities and specific energies of the secondary and tertiary planetary energy flows. These values for the energy flows in the wind, rain, waves and wind driven ocean currents, etc. are key values in carrying out many environmental assessments. The work will impact all of those interested in carrying out extended life cycle assessments
Brown et al. (2016) published a synthesis paper in which evidence was presented supporting a new value of the Earth’s geobiosphere baseline, 12.0E+24 seJ/y (solar equivalent joules per year) from which the emergy of all the Earth’s products and processes can be calculated. This value for the planetary baseline was further reinforced by adding the direct input of magma from the mantle to the Earth’s surface augmenting the baseline calculations in Campbell (2016). Also, Brown and Ulgiati (2016) published a paper giving transformities for the secondary and tertiary planetary exergy flows based on the new baseline. In this study the theoretical basis for their calculations of the transformities of the exergy flows within the hydrological cycle is reexamined and alternative formulations are proposed that are more consistent with observations of the world’s hydrological cycle and the emergy required to support its flows. In addition, several models for calculating the transformity of the wind are presented and the transformities of the exergy of waves and wind-driven currents that are the tertiary flows derived from the wind are also calculated. This study, (1) reexamines and refines the data given in Campbell (2016) further supporting the agreed upon value of the solar equivalent exergy, SEE, baseline of the Earth’s geobiosphere; (2) proposes new solar equivalence ratios, SERs, for tidal exergy dissipated in the oceans and the Earth’s deep heat flow based on the refined baseline line and Campbell (2016); (3) presents theoretical models for calculating the secondary and tertiary emergy flows of the geobiosphere; (4) carries out new calculations of the transformities of the Earth’s secondary and tertiary emergy flows and (5) examines a possible way forward for insuring self-consistency in future emergy evaluations.