Science Inventory

Transcriptome profiling reveals bisphenol A alternatives activate estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells

Citation:

Mesnage, R., A. Phedonos, M. Arno, S. Balu, C. Corton, AND M. Antoniou. Transcriptome profiling reveals bisphenol A alternatives activate estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells. TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES. Society of Toxicology, RESTON, VA, 158(2):431-443, (2017).

Impact/Purpose:

Plasticizers with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in humans. Due to mounting evidence of these health effects and public pressure, BPA is being phased out by the plastics manufacturing industry and replaced by other bisphenol variants in “BPA-free” products. The estrogenic activity of these alternatives has not been comprehensively examined. In the present study, the estrogenic activity of BPA was compared to 6 bisphenol analogues (bisphenol S, BPS; bisphenol F, BPF; bisphenol AP, BPAP; bisphenol AF, BPAF; bisphenol Z, BPZ; bisphenol B, BPB) in three human breast cancer cell lines using a number of techniques including cell proliferation assays, estrogen receptor trans-activation assays, and full genome analysis of gene expression. All bisphenols showed estrogenic activity in promoting cell growth and inducing ERE-mediated transcription. BPAF was the most potent bisphenol, followed by BPB > BPZ ~ BPA > BPF ~ BPAP > BPS. The addition of ICI 182,780 antagonized the activation of ERs by bisphenols. Data mining of ToxCast high-throughput screening assays confirms our results but also shows divergence in the sensitivities of the assays. The comparison of transcriptome profile alterations resulting from BPA alternatives with an ERα gene expression biomarker further indicates that all BPA alternatives act as ERα agonists in MCF-7 cells. These results were confirmed by RNA sequencing. Thus, BPA alternatives are not necessarily less estrogenic in a human breast cancer cell model. Three bisphenols (BPAF, BPB, and BPZ) were more estrogenic than BPA. Our findings will support human health risk assessment of these chemicals by EPA and other regulatory agencies.

Description:

Plasticizers with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have potential adverse health effects in humans. Due to mounting evidence of these health effects, BPA is being phased out and replaced by other bisphenol variants in “BPA-free” products. We have compared estrogenic activity of BPA with 6 bisphenol analogues [bisphenol S (BPS); bisphenol F (BPF); bisphenol AP (BPAP); bisphenol AF (BPAF); bisphenol Z (BPZ); bisphenol B (BPB)] in 3 human breast cancer cell lines. Estrogenicity was assessed (10−11–10−4 M) by cell growth in an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated cell proliferation assay, and by the induction of estrogen response element-mediated transcription in a luciferase assay. BPAF was the most potent bisphenol, followed by BPB > BPZ ∼ BPA > BPF ∼ BPAP > BPS. The addition of ICI 182,780 antagonized the activation of ERs. Data mining of ToxCast high-throughput screening assays confirm our results but also show divergence in the sensitivities of the assays. Gene expression profiles were determined in MCF-7 cells by microarray analysis. The comparison of transcriptome profile alterations resulting from BPA alternatives with an ERα gene expression biomarker further indicates that all BPA alternatives act as ERα agonists in MCF-7 cells. These results were confirmed by Illumina-based RNA sequencing. In conclusion, BPA alternatives are not necessarily less estrogenic than BPA in human breast cancer cells. BPAF, BPB, and BPZ were more estrogenic than BPA. These findings point to the importance of better understanding the risk of adverse effects from exposure to BPA alternatives, including hormone-dependent breast cancer.

URLs/Downloads:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx101   Exit

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Product Published Date: 06/07/2017
Record Last Revised: 11/22/2017
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 337749

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

INTEGRATED SYSTEMS TOXICOLOGY DIVISION

SYSTEMS BIOLOGY BRANCH