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Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response
Madden, M. AND B. Winters. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response. Intl. Assoc for Breath Research, Zurich, SWITZERLAND, September 14 - 16, 2016.
This presentation will describe recent findings from the analyses of exhaled breath from nonhuman animal models for studying the mechanisms of induction of disease or biological responses to pollutants, pharmaceuticals, and other agents. Included will the analyses of volatile compounds which emanate from exposed cell cultures. These studies will assist in high through put studies of the mechanisms involved in changes in human health.
Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and analyses of breath have long given insights into the state of the lung and extrapulmonary organ systems. The collection of different components in breath have involved different techniques depending on the physicochemical properties of the analyte of interest. For instance, gas phase components have been collected differently from aerosol/particulate matter. Gas phase components in exhaled breath can sometimes be linked to extrapulmonary organs systems, such as sulfur containing compounds from the hepatic tissue. Unique biomarkers of the lung have also been identified in exhaled “breath spots”, such as surfactant components which are specific to respiratory portions of the lung. More recently the study of volatile substances released from cell cultures have taken on more of an interest as researchers are attempting to link in vitro processes to in vivo processes (eg, ADME) for the purposes of pollutant toxicity screening or pharmaceutical development. Typically these approaches have not incorporated a metabolic step. However that missing part of ADME is increasing recognized, and approaches are being utilized to examine the role of metabolism in effector cells on the cellular responses of target cells. Animal models of human disease take on increasing importance as the exhaled breath from the models can be examined not only in vivo, but through the VOCs emanating from the isolated cells from the organ system under investigation. While internal organ systems pose difficulties in capturing the unique VOC profile, the skin avails itself to easier access and methodology for sampling cellular VOCs. While animal models are important in understanding the pathobiological mechanisms involved in the induction of clinical diseases or a biological response, monitoring of nonhuman animals can also be used in establishment of sentinel species. Breath from sentinel species can be used for determination of the exposure to pollutants and ambient pharmaceutical agents. This overview presentation will provide examples of the utility of the examination of breath components and cell culture VOCs derived from nonhuman animal models in the determination of the biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility. [This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and may not represent official US EPA policy.]