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Detonation Nanodiamond Toxicity in Human Airway Epithelial Cells Is Modulated by Air Oxidation
Silbajoris, R., Bill Linak, O. Shenderova, C. Winterrowd, H. Chang, J. Zweier, A. Kota, L. Dailey, P. Bromberg, AND J. Samet. Detonation Nanodiamond Toxicity in Human Airway Epithelial Cells Is Modulated by Air Oxidation. Diamond and Related Materials. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, 58:16-23, (2015).
This study examines the relationship between the surface chemistry of carbonaceous nanomaterials and their biological activity. This is fundamentally relevant to the inhalational toxicology of combustion-derived particulate matter.
Detonational nanodiamonds (DND), a nanomaterial with an increasing range of industrial and biomedical applications, have previously been shown to induce a pro-inflammatory response in cultured human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). We now show that surface modifications induced by air oxidation of DND (AO-DND), including an increase in oxygen content, formation of carboxylic groups associated with the appearance of high negative zeta potential and a decrease in free radical content, are accompanied by a significant loss of bioactivity, as measured by levels of interleukin-8 mRNA in HAEC. These findings are relevant to the identification of chemical determinants and molecular mechanisms of the inhalational toxicity of carbonaceous nanomaterials.