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Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease
Schreinemachers, D. AND Andy Ghio. Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease. Environmental Health Insights. Libertas Academica Ltd, North Harbour, New Zealand, 10:35-43, (2016).
This article proposes a mechanism of toxicity of environmental chemicals which focuses on iron complexation and subsequent oxidant generation.
Chronic disease has increased in the last several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanism underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to complex iron through electronegative functional groups containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. Cellular exposure to the chemical, or its metabolite, may cause a loss of requisite functional iron from intracellular sites. The cell is compelled to acquire further iron critical to its survival by activation of iron-responsive proteins and increasing iron import. Iron homeostasis in the exposed cells is altered. A new equilibrium is established between cells requiring iron and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite) allowing for continued survival due to a new equilibrium being established between iron-requiring cells and the inappropriate chelator (the pollutant or its catabolite). Following exposure to environmental pollutants, the perturbation of functional iron homeostasis may be the mechanism leading to adverse biological effects. Understanding the mechanism may lead to intervention methods for this major public health concern.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CLINICAL RESEARCH BRANCH