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Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets
Schladweiler, M., S. Snow, H. Tong, V. Bass, J. Richards, R. Jaskot, AND U. Kodavanti. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets. Society of Toxicology Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 13 - 17, 2016.
Fish and olive oil diets have offered protection from air pollution induced cardiovascular effects in humans. These data indicate that fish oil but not olive oil-rich diet, while increasing BALF protein content and inflammation at baseline, offers protection from O3-induced vascular albumin leakage in the lung and aortic vasoconstriction.
Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against the adverse pulmonary and vascular effects induced by exposure to air pollution. We hypothesized that FO and OO diets can influence ozone-mediated pulmonary injury/inflammation and vascular contractility. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet enriched with FO, OO, or coconut oil (CO; a control oil diet) starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to air or 0.8 ppm O3, 4h/day for 2 days. The CO and OO diets increased serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels as compared to the animals fed the normal and FO diets. FO diet increased baseline levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, lactate dehydrogenase and n-acetyl glucosaminidase activity (NAG), as well as inflammatory cells (macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils) but did not increase albumin leakage. O3-induced increases in BALF protein was exacerbated in rats fed OO relative FO, however albumin leakage was least affected by FO diet. O3 increased NAG regardless of diet, but this increase further exacerbated in rats fed all lipid diets relative to normal chow. O3 increased neutrophilic inflammation in all dietary groups except for FO, whereas eosinophilic inflammation was evident in only the CO and OO dietary groups. O3-induced drop in circulating white blood cells was least affected in rats fed FO diet. FO supplementation protected against phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in thoracic aortic rings segments that was present in all other O3 exposed rats. Collectively, these data indicate that FO, while increasing BALF protein content and inflammation at baseline, offers protection from O3-induced vascular albumin leakage in the lung and aortic vasoconstriction. (Does not reflect the US EPA policy).
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
CARDIOPULMONARY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY BRANCH