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Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects
Snow, S., H. Tong, D. Miller, M. Schladweiler, J. Richards, D. Andrews, AND U. Kodavanti. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects. Society of Toxicology Meeting, New Orelans, LA, March 13 - 17, 2016.
Fish and olive oil diet resulted in protection of volunteers from vascular effects of air pollution exposure. These data indicate that FO offers protection against metabolic impairment induced by an acute O3 exposure, and suggest that this simple dietary supplementation will be beneficial for individuals that reside in highly polluted regions.
Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against the adverse pulmonary and metabolic effects induced by exposure to air pollution. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with FO and OO would attenuate O3-induced metabolic impairments. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet, or a diet enriched with FO, OO, or coconut oil (CO; a control oil diet) starting at 4 weeks of age. The CO and OO diets increased body fat % as well as serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels as compared to the animals fed the normal and FO diets. Serum leptin, a satiety hormone, was elevated with all dietary supplementation; however, glucose tolerance testing (GTT) indicated that blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were unaffected by the oil-based diets. Eight weeks following the initial start of the diet, animals were exposed to air or 0.8 ppm O3, 4h/day for 2 days. GTT illustrated O3-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance regardless of diet, with further exacerbation of glucose intolerance occurring when animals were fed the OO diet. O3 exposure significantly increased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, leptin, and branched chain amino acids in animals fed the normal diet, indicating metabolic impairment. The various oil-enriched diets selectively attenuated these responses with FO being the only supplement able to abolish all O3-induced increases in these metabolic biomarkers. Collectively, these data indicate that FO offers protection against metabolic impairment induced by an acute O3 exposure, and suggest that this simple dietary supplementation will be beneficial for individuals that reside in highly polluted regions. (This abstract does not reflect the US EPA Policy).