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Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice
Gavett, S., C. Wood, M. Williams, J. Cyphert, E. Boykin, M. Daniels, L. Copeland, J. Richards, D. Andrews, R. Jaskot, Ian Gilmour, C. King, AND Todd Krantz. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Informa Healthcare USA, New York, NY, 27(11):533-544, (2015).
Biodiesel fuel emissions have different profiles of gaseous and particulate species compared to diesel exhaust, potentially leading to different health effects. However, only a small number of toxicity studies have been conducted on health effects of biodiesel. The present study shows that alternative soy biodiesel emissions have comparable or reduced adverse effects relative to diesel emissions in healthy mice or a mouse model of allergic asthma.
Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrations of 50, 150, or 500 µg/m(3). Studies in healthy mice showed greater levels of neutrophils and MIP-2 in bronchoaeolar lavage (BAL) fluid 2 h after a single 4-h exposure to BO compared with mice exposed to B20 or B100. No consistent differences in BAL cells and biochemistry, or hematological parameters, were observed after 5 d or 4 weeks of exposure to any of the emissions. Air-exposed HDM-allergc mice had significantly increased responsiveness to methacholine aerosol challenge compared with non-allergic mice. Exposure to any of the emissions for 4 weeks did not further increase responsiveness in either non-allergic or HDM allergic mice, and few parameters of allergic inflammation in BAL fluid were altered. Lung and nasal pathology were not significantly different among BO-, B20-, or B100-exposed groups. In HDM-allergic mice, exposure to BO, but not B20 or B100, significantly increased resting peribronchiolar lymph node cell proliferation and production of TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and IL-17 in comparison with air-exposed allergic mice. These results suggest that diesel exhaust at a relatively high concentration (500 µg/m(3)) can induce inflammation acutely in healthy mice and exacerbate some components of allergic responses, while comparable concentrations of B20 or B100 soy biodiesel fuels did not elicit responses different from those caused by air exposure alone.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION
INHALATION TOXICOLOGY FACILITIES BRANCH