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Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers
Tong, H., A. Rappold, M. Caughey, A. Hinderliter, M. Case, J. Berntsen, W. Cascio, D. Diaz-Sanchez, R. Devlin, AND J. Samet. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers. Presented at American Thoracic Society Meeting, San Diego, CA, May 16 - 23, 2014.
To be presented at the 2014 American Thoracic Society Sentific conference, May 16-23, 2014, San Diego, CA.
Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and therefore might offer a novel approach to mitigate adverse cardiovascular effects and clinical events associated with PM exposure. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of olive oil and fish oil to prevent endothelial dysfunction and changes in prothrombotic blood proteins caused by exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter (CAP) exposure in healthy subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty-two healthy male and female subjects (mean age 58±1 year) after informed consent were assigned in a randomized, double-blinded manner to receive either 3 gram/day of olive oil (OO), fish oil (FO), or no supplements (control) for 4 weeks prior to undergoing controlled 2-hr exposures to filtered air followed on the next day by fine/ultrafine CAP (mean mass concentration 253±16 µg/m3) in a controlled-exposure chamber following an IRB approved protocol. Main Outcome Measures: Endothelial function was assessed using sonographic measurement of flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD) pre-, immediately post- and 20 hours post-exposure to air and CAP. Blood markers of vasoconstriction and fibrinolysis were also assayed before, immediately post-, and 20 hours post-exposure. Results: Immediately after CAP exposure, there were statistically significant, PM-mass-dependent reductions of FMD in the control (-19.4±8.4% /100 µg/m3 increases in CAP concentration relative to pre-filtered air levels, p<0.05) and FO groups (-13.7±5.3%, ), but not in the OO group (-7.6±6.8%). Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increased (11.6±5%, p<0.05) immediately after CAP exposure in the OO group, and this effect persisted up to 20 hours. Twenty hours following CAP exposure, D-dimer decreased in the OO group (-11.6±5%, ), and endothelin-1 levels increased only in the control group (20.5±7%, ). Conclusion: Short-term exposure to CAP impaired vascular endothelial function that persists 20 hours after exposure. OO supplementation ameliorated CAP-induced reduction of FMD and changes in blood markers associated with vasoconstriction and fibrinolysis. By contrast, FO did not affect endothelial function and fibrinolysis after CAP exposure. These data suggest that OO supplementation may offer protection against the adverse vascular effects of exposure to air pollution particles. THIS ABSTRACT DOES NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT EPA POLICY.