Science Inventory

EPA Biofuels Research: Biofuel Vapor Generation and Monitoring Methods

Citation:

EVANSKY, P. A., S. Martin, P. J. BUSHNELL, T. E. BEASLEY, M. A. HIGUCHI, AND Q. T. KRANTZ. EPA Biofuels Research: Biofuel Vapor Generation and Monitoring Methods. Presented at Society of Toxicology (SOT) Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, March 11 - 15, 2012.

Impact/Purpose:

The interest in renewable fuels and alternative energy sources has stimulated development of alternatives to traditional petroleum-based fuels. The EPA's Office of Transportation Air Quality (OTAQ) requires information regarding the potential health hazards ofthese fuels regarding exposure to both evaporative emissions and to exhaust gases produced by their combustion.

Description:

The interest in renewable fuels and alternative energy sources has stimulated development of alternatives to traditional petroleum-based fuels. The EPA's Office of Transportation Air Quality (OTAQ) requires information regarding the potential health hazards ofthese fuels regarding exposure to both evaporative emissions and to exhaust gases produced by their combustion. One particular concern is the potential for developmental neurotoxicity of evaporative emissions, given the known sensitivity ofthe developing nervous system to ethanol ingestion and solvent inhalation. The Inhalation Toxicology Facilities Branch (ITFB) developed novel inhalation exposure systems (vapor condensate generation and monitoring methods) to enable conduct of studies on pharmacokinetics and health outcomes of evaporative emission exposures. Initially we generated ethanol vapor condensates at stable atmospheres of 5K, 10K, and 21K ppm using dynamic countercurrent evaporation in both nose-only and whole-body exposure chambers. Then we generated stable atmospheres ofvapor condensates manufactured from gasolines made to specifications from bio-fuel blends containing 0, 15%, and 85% fuel grade ethanol. Several monitoring methods were employed: real time analysis ofthe chamber was performed using Fourier Transforming Infrared Spectroscopy to check composition and concentration, chamber composition was verified using GC/FID analysis ofgrab samples, and dispersive infrared to verify concentrations. The composition ofthe vapor condensates was stable over time (percent difference < 2% vs. liquid vapor condensate) and provided a sufficient exposure scenario for pharmacokinetic and health outcome experiments. Abstract does not reflect EPA policy.

Record Details:

Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/ABSTRACT)
Product Published Date: 03/15/2012
Record Last Revised: 11/29/2012
OMB Category: Other
Record ID: 239594

Organization:

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH DIVISION

INHALATION TOXICOLOGY FACILITIES BRANCH