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Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pool
Kogevinas, M., C. M. Villanueva, L. Front-Ribera, F. Espinoza, P. Fernandez, J. O. Grimalt, T. Grummt, AND R. Marcos. Genotoxic Effects in Swimmers Exposed to Disinfection By-products in Indoor Swimming Pool. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Research Triangle Park, NC, 118(11):1531-1537, (2010).
This study indicates that just 40 min of swimming in a chlorinated pool produces genotoxic effects in swimmers indicating that dermal and inhalation exposures may be Important routes of exposure to mutagenic disinfection by-products in chlorinated water.
BACKGROUND: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with cancer risk, and a recent study found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether swimming in pools is associated with biomarkers of genotoxicity. METHODS: We collected blood, urine, and exhaled air samples from 49 non-smoking adult volunteers before and after they swam for 40 min in an indoor chlorinated pool. We compared the concentrations offour trihalomethanes in exhaled breath to the following biomarkers: micronuclei and DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, micronuclei in exfoliated urothelial cells, and urine mutagenicity. We determined genetic polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair or DBP metabolism. RESULTS: After swimming, the total concentration of the four trihalomethanes in 'exhaled breath increased sevenfold, and the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes, increased relative to the exhaled concentrations of the brominated trihalomethanes (p = 0.03 for CHChBr, p = 0.05 for CHClBr2,p = 0.01 for CHBr3) but not chloroform. The frequency ofmicronucleated urothelial cells collected 2 weeks after swimming increased non-significantly. Urine mutagenicity increased significantly after swimming relative to the concentration of exhaled CHBr3 (P = 0.004). Swimming did not cause DNA damage detectable by the comet assay in blood. Although not conclusive, effects modification by gene-environment interaction seemed plausible. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to trihalomethanes through swimming in pools is associated with genotoxicity. These findings should be verified in larger studies. The positive health effects gained by swimming could be increased by reducing the potential health risks of pool water.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
INTEGRATED SYSTEMS TOXICOLOGY DIVISION
GENETIC AND CELLULAR TOXICOLOGY BRANCH