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Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms
JANZ, D., D. DE FOREST, M. BROOKS, P. CHAPMAN, G. GILRON, D. HOFF, W. HOPKINS, D. O MCINTYRE, C. MEBANE, V. PALACE, J. SKORUPA, AND M. WAYLAND. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms. Chapter 6, Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment. CRC Press - Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, Boca Raton, FL, , 141-231, (2010).
To address the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge.
This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecological risk assessments. While the inorganic forms of Se (e.g., selenate, selenite) can be toxic at concentrations in the 102 ug/L range via waterborne exposures, dietary exposure to mg/kg concentrations of organic Se poses a greater hazard to certain classes of aquatic biota, such as fish and birds. In terms of organic Se toxicity to aquatic biota, this chapter specifically addresses: Mechanisms of organic Se toxicity; most repevant/indicative toxicity endpoints, comparative sensitivity of organic Se to various aquatic species (and factors influencing this relative sensitivity); factors that modify organic Se toxicity; linkages between organic Se toxicity at the sub-organismal level to population-level impacts; considerations and recommendations for the design and conduct of site-specific effects studies; uncertainties associated with Se toxicity; and future research needs.