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Normal development of the female reproductive system
GOLDMAN, J. M. AND R. L. COOPER. Normal development of the female reproductive system. 3rdChapter 3, Kapp, KW and Tyl, RW (ed.), Reproductive Toxicology. Informa Healthcare, London, Uk, , 36-50, (2011).
The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species.
The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (MUllerian) reproductive ducts are both present, and the expression ofthe Sry gene on the male Y chromosome will trigger the synthesis of a MUllerian Inhibitory Substance and cause a regression of the rudimentary female ducts. Absence of the X chromosome and Sry gene will instead result in regression ofthe male ducts and channel development in a female direction. Subsequently, the indifferent gonad will transform into an embryonic ovary containing nests of germ cells that will subsequently disperse to become oocytes. These dispersed oocytes will become encased within a layer ot preganulosa cells to form primordial follicles and remain in meiotic arrest until stimulated to mature further after puberty by a surge in follicle-stimulating hormone. Around the time of birth, the sexual differentiation that is chromosomally determined is accompanied by a hormonally driven process that causes an organizational development in the brain and other steroid-sensitive tissues, resulting in the appearance of sex-specific changes in endocrine and behavioral phenotypes. Finally, a host ofprocesses that began during infancy, involving neuroendocrine and other signaling factors, will culminate in the emergence of a mature reproductive system at puberty. The material described in this article has been reviewed by the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies ofthe Agency, nor does mention oftrade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (BOOK CHAPTER)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY
TOXICOLOGY ASSESSMENT DIVISION
ENDOCRINE TOXICOLOGY BRANCH