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Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals
STOKER, T. E. AND R. J. KAVLOCK. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. 3rd, Chapter 18, Robert Krieger (ed.), Hayes Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (new edition). Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, 1:551-569, (2010).
The chapter is an updated review of the effects of pesticides on the endocrine system.
Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, alter the synthesis or clearance of endogenous hormones, interact with various neurotransmitter systems, and cause yet other effects by still poorly understood mechanisms. The pesticides which produce these effects on the endocrine system encompass a variety of pesticide chemical classes. Some of these pesticides are pervasive and widely dispersed in the environment. Some are persistent, can be transported long distances and others are rapidly degraded in the environment or the human body. However, even a brief exposure to pesticides which alter endocrine function can cause permanent effects if the exposure occurs during critical windows of reproductive development. To whom all correspondence should be sent to: email@example.com. Disclaimer: The research described in this article has been reviewed by the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.