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A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION OF SILTY MARINE HARBOR SEDIMENTS TO CHARACTERIZE PERSISTENT AND NON-PERSISTENT CONSTITUENTS
Stronkhorst, J., M. E. Schot, M. C. Dubbeldam, AND K T. Ho. A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION OF SILTY MARINE HARBOR SEDIMENTS TO CHARACTERIZE PERSISTENT AND NON-PERSISTENT CONSTITUENTS. MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN 46:56-64, (2003).
Sediment toxicity in silty marine harbor sediments is frequently dominated by ammonia or sulfide, leaving the adverse effects of persistent toxic substances unnoticed. To investigate the latter, we subjected interstitial water from three contaminated silty sediments to toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) phase I manipulations and tested for toxicity with four bioassays: the amphipod Corophium volutator (survival as an endpoint), the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (fertilization, embryo development) and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (bioluminescence inhibition).
The graduated pH manipulations identified the prominent toxicity of ammonia in the amphipod and sea urchin embryo tests, and also sulfide toxicity in the bacterium test. In two of the three samples tested with the amphipods, sea urchin embryos and bacteria, a small but significant reduction in interstitial water toxicity was achieved by removing persistent compounds through C18 solid phase extraction. EDTA chelation resulted in a slight detoxification of the interstitial water for the amphipods and sea urchin embryos, but this was not related to any measured trace metals. Despite the presence of toxic levels of ammonia and sulfide in the harbor sediments, we established the adverse biological effects of persistent constituents by means of the TIE manipulations and in vivo interstitial water bioassays.