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EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. II. Total Culturable Virus Assay
Fout, Shay AND J. Cashdollar. EPA Method 1615. Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. II. Total Culturable Virus Assay. Journal of Visualized Experiments . JoVE, Somerville, MA, 115:e52437, (2016).
EPA Method 1615 is being used by a number of national and international labs. This paper and the accompanying video will provide training opportunity to additional labs who want to implement the method.
A standardized method is required when national studies on virus occurrence in environmental and drinking waters utilize multiple analytical laboratories. The U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Method 1615 was developed with the goal of providing such a standard for measuring Enterovirus and Norovirus in these waters. Virus is concentrated from water using an electropositive filter, eluted from the filter surface with beef extract, and then concentrated further using organic flocculation. Herein we present the protocol from Method 1615 for filter elution, secondary concentration, and measurement of total culturable viruses. A portion of the concentrated eluate from each sample is inoculated onto ten replicate flasks of Buffalo Green Monkey kidney cells. The number of flasks demonstrating cytopathic effects is used to quantify the most probable number (MPN) of infectious units per liter. The method uses a number of quality controls to increase data quality and to reduce interlaboratory and intralaboratory variation. Laboratories must meet defined performance standards. Method 1615 was evaluated by examining virus recovery from reagent-grade and ground waters seeded with Sabin poliovirus type 3. Mean poliovirus recoveries with the total culturable assay were 111% in reagent grade water and 58% in groundwaters.