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TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS
Rohrer, C. A., T E. Hieber, L J. Melnyk, AND M R. Berry Jr. TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY 13(6):454-464, (2003).
The purpose of this research is to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessments of young children by improving EPA's ability to measure exposures in the context of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments. The general objective of this research is to support FQPA children's exposure assessment efforts by improving procedures and reducing uncertainty in measurements for dietary exposure of young children, a critically needed area for improved risk assessment. Specifically, this research will evaluate a protocol and companion model for measuring or otherwise assessing the combined dietary intake of a young child as influenced by pesticides, or other environmental contaminants, which contaminate their foods during the eating process (indirect ingestion exposure). This research will continue to develop the important factors which are needed to characterize excess intake of pesticides by young children. Specifically, the research will measure pesticide surface transfer efficiencies for food contacts with surfaces and eating activity patterns of young children that define the frequency of contacts with contaminated surfaces. A series of reports/products are anticipated by the end of FY05.
The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine if excess dietary exposure potentially occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being. Three common household surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood flooring, and carpet) were contaminated with an aqueous solution of commercially available pesticides (diazinon, helptachlor, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isofenphos, and cis- and trans-permetrhin) frequently found in residential environments. A surface wipe method was used to measure the pesticides available on the surfaces as a basis for calculating transfer efficiency to the foods. Three foods (apple, bologna, and cheese) routinely handled by children before eating were placed on the contaminated surfaces and transfers of pesticides were measured after 10 min contact. Other contact durations (1 and 60 min) and applying additional contact force (1500g) to the foods were evaluated for their impact on transferred pesticides. More pesticides transferred to the foods from the hard surfaces tested, i.e., ceramic tile and hardwood flooring, than from carpet. Mean transfer efficiencies for all pesticides to the three foods ranged from 24 to 40% from ceramic tile and 15 to 29% from hardwood, as compared to mostly nondetectable transfers from carpet. Contact duration and applied force notably increased pesticide transfer. The mean transfer efficiency for the seven pesticides increased from around 1% at 1 min to between 55 and 83% when contact duration was increased to 60 min for the three foods contacting hardwood flooring. Mean transfer efficiency for 10-min contact increased from 15% to 72% when a 1500-g force was applied to bologna placed on hardwood flooring. Contamination of food occurs from contact with pesticide-laden surfaces, thus increasing the potential for excess dietary exposure of children who ingest foods that have contacted such surfaces.