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EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION
Burns, L A. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-00/081 (NTIS PB2003-106603), 2000.
Extend existing model technologies to accommodate the full range of transport, fate and food chain contamination pathways, and their biogeographical variants, present in agricultural landscapes and watersheds. Assemble the range of datasets needed to execute risk assessments with appropriate geographic specificity in support of pesticide safety evaluations. Develop software integration technologies, user interfaces, and reporting capabilities for direct application to the EPA risk assessment paradigm in a statistical and probabilistic decision framework.
The Exposure Analysis Modeling System, first published in 1982 (EPA-600/3-82-023), provides interactive computer software for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and rapidly evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals - pesticides, industrial materials, and leachates from disposal sites. EXAMS contains an integrated Database Management System (DBMS) specifically designed for storage and management of project databases required by the software. User interaction is provided by a fullfeatured Command Line Interface (CLI), context-sensitive help menus, an on-line data dictionary and CLI users guide, and plotting capabilities for review of output data. EXAMS provides 20 output tables that document the input datasets and provide integrated results summaries for aid in ecological risk assessments. EXAMS core is a set of process modules that link fundamental chemical properties to the limnological parameters that control the kinetics of fate and transport in aquatic systems. The chemical properties are measurable by conventional laboratory methods; most are required under various regulatory authority. When run under the EPA's GEMS or pcGEMS systems, EXAMS accepts direct output from QSAR software. EXAMS limnological data are composed of elements historically of interest to aquatic scientists world-wide, so generation of suitable environmental datasets can generally be accomplished with minimal project-specific field investigations. EXAMS provides facilities for long-term (steady-state) analysis of chronic chemical discharges, initial-value approaches for study of short-term chemical releases, and full kinetic simulations that allow for monthly variation in mean climatological parameters and alteration of chemical loadings on daily time scales. EXAMS has been written in generalized (N-dimensional) form in its implementation of algorithms for representing spatial detail and chemical degradation pathways. This DOS implementation allows for study of five simultaneous chemical compounds and 100 environmental segments; other configurations can be created through special arrangement with the author. EXAMS provides analyses of: Exposure: the expected (96-hour acute, 21-day and long-term chronic) environmental concentrations of synthetic chemicals and their transformation products,
Fate: the spatial distribution of chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem, and the relative importance of each transformation and transport process (important in establishing the acceptable uncertainty in chemical laboratory data), and Persistence: the time required for natural purification of the ecosystem (via export and degradation processes) once chemical releases end. EXAMS includes file-transfer interfaces to the PRZM3 terrestrial model and the FGETS and BASS bioaccumulation models; it is a complete implementation of EXAMS in Fortran 90.