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Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields
Thomas, K. AND E. Irvin-Barnwell. Chemical and Physical Analysis Methods for Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber Used in Synthetic Turf Fields. 2017 SETAC North America Conference, Minneapolis, MN, November 12 - 16, 2017.
The presentation will describe the purpose and methods for tire crumb rubber sampling and analytical characterization under the Federal Research Action Plan, and will frame the characterization in a human exposure context.
Tire crumb rubber from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. Recycled crumb rubber is a complex and potentially variable matrix with many metal, VOC, and SVOC constituents, presenting challenges for characterization and exposure assessment. The material may also weather differently over time on fields, potentially increasing the variability in its chemical and physical properties. As part of U.S. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds, researchers collected tire crumb samples from nine tire recycling plants and 40 synthetic turf fields across the United States. Multiple analytical methods were applied to measure a wide range of chemicals and to assess factors that may affect total exposures. Microwave acid digestion of crumb rubber with ICP-MS analysis was used to measure 20 elements. Tire crumb rubber was solvent extracted for quantitative analysis of approximately 50 PAHs, phthalates, thiazoles, and other rubber chemicals by GC/MS and LC/TOFMS methods, with suspect screening for many other potential rubber chemicals. Dynamic emission chamber testing was performed using small or micro-chambers at 25° and 60°C. Emissions of approximately 40 VOCs were collected on Carbopack X cartridges with GC/TOFMS analysis. SVOC emissions were collected on polyurethane foam with GC/MS and LC/TOFMS analyses. Non-targeted analyte data analysis approaches were applied to a subset of the VOC and SVOC analyses. To better understand potential bioaccessibility of chemical constituents, extractions for metals and SVOCs were performed using simulated saliva, sweat, and gastric fluids with ICP/MS or GC/MS analyses. Particle sizes were characterized using gravimetric and SEM methods. Moisture content and rubber/sand fractions were measured. Application of this array of analytical methods improves our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the recycled tire material used on synthetic fields and is an important step in assessing synthetic field user exposures. However, lack of reference materials and differences in methods and performance between laboratories may present some concerns for data comparability and exposure assessment.
SETAC2017 TIRE CRUMB POSTER FINAL.PDF (PDF,NA pp, 4567.009 KB, about PDF)
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/SLIDE)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY
SYSTEMS EXPOSURE DIVISION