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Pathways of inhalation exposure to manganese in children living near a ferromanganese refinery: A structural equation modeling approach
Fulk, F., P. Succop, T. Hilbert, C. Beidler, D. Brown, T. Reponen, AND E. Haynes. Pathways of inhalation exposure to manganese in children living near a ferromanganese refinery: A structural equation modeling approach. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, Netherlands, 579:768–775, (2017).
The purpose of this study was to use a structural equations modeling approach combined with exposure estimates derived from air-dispersion modeling to assess potential inhalation exposure pathways for children to ambient air manganese.
Manganese (Mn) is both essential element and neurotoxicant. Exposure to Mn can occur from various sources and routes. Structural equation modeling was used to examine routes of exposure to Mn among children residing near a ferromanganese refinery in Marietta, Ohio. An inhalation pathway model to ambient air Mn was hypothesized. Data for model evaluation were obtained from participants in the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES). These data were collected in 2009 and included levels of Mn in residential soil and dust, levels of Mn in children's hair, information on the amount of time the child spent outside, heat and air conditioning in the home and level of parent education. Hair Mn concentration was the primary endogenous variable used to assess the theoretical inhalation exposure pathways. The model indicated that household dust Mn was a significant contributor to child hair Mn (0.37). Annual ambient air Mn concentration (0.26), time children spent outside (0.24) and soil Mn (0.24) significantly contributed to the amount of Mn in household dust. These results provide a potential framework for understanding the inhalation exposure pathway for children exposed to ambient air Mn who live in proximity to an industrial emission source.