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Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity
Lichtveld, K., J. Ruiz, J. Clinger, K. Thomas, AND N. Tulve. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity. ISES Annual Meeting, Henderson, NV, Henderson, NV, October 18 - 23, 2015.
The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.
Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stressors found in a child’s total environment (built, natural, social environments) and how these cumulative interactions affect childhood obesity. The objective of this research was to identify and characterize chemical (78) and non-chemical stressors (23) that impact childhood obesity and conduct a meta-analysis of selected stressors and inherent factors (e.g., age, sex). A state-of-the-science literature review was conducted to identify, organize, and analyze the chemical and non-chemical stressors related to childhood obesity. Examples of non-chemical stressors from the built environment include access to fast food restaurants, convenience stores, and recreational facilities. Examples of non-chemical stressors from the social environment include television watching, interactions with peers, school success, crime, violence in the home, and socioeconomic status. Examples of chemical stressors considered include bisphenol A, metals, pesticides, flame retardants, and air pollution. Available data was extracted from the literature, inputted into a searchable database, and analyzed. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the direction and magnitude of the effect of the stressor on childhood obesity. Preliminary analyses of the built environment data suggested no association between the distance a child lives from a school and a child’s weight. Other preliminary analyses of selected stressors showed inconsistent associations between the stressor (e.g., access to fast food restaurants, pesticides, metals) and a child’s weight. Further analyses of the available chemical and non-chemical stressors will be presented. This research suggests the importance of considering the cumulative effects of chemical and non-chemical stressors found in a child’s total environment on childhood obesity.
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (PRESENTATION/SLIDE)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DIVISION
EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS & ANALYSIS BRANCH