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Examining the effects of air pollution composition on within region differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates
Baxter, L., R. Duvall, AND J. Sacks. Examining the effects of air pollution composition on within region differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology . Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, 23:457-465, (2013).
The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA′s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD′s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA′s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.
Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed significant heterogeneity in both the magnitude and direction of city-specific risk estimates, but tended to focus on regional differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. Interpreting differences in risk estimates is complicated by city-to-city heterogeneity observed within regions due to city-to-city variations in the PM2.5 composition and the concentration of gaseous pollutants. We evaluate whether variations in PM2.5 composition and gaseous pollutant concentrations have a role in explaining the heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates observed in 27 US cities from 1997 to 2002. Within each region, we select the two cities with the largest and smallest mortality risk estimate. We compare for each region the within- and between-city concentrations and correlations of PM2.5 constituents and gaseous pollutants. We also attempt to identify source factors through principal component analysis (PCA) for each city. The results of this analysis indicate that identifying a PM constituent(s) that explains the differences in the PM2.5 mortality risk estimates is not straightforward. The difference in risk estimates between cities in the same region may be attributed to a group of pollutants, possibly those related to local sources such as traffic.
URLs/Downloads:Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology Exit
BAXTER ORD - 001072 FINAL.PDF (PDF,NA pp, 162.121 KB, about PDF)
Record Details:Record Type: DOCUMENT (JOURNAL/PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL)
Organization:U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY
HUMAN EXPOSURE AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DIVISION
EXPOSURE MODELING RESEARCH BRANCH