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Assessing the Quantitative Relationships between Preschool Children's Exposures to Bisphenol A by Route and Urinary Biomonitoring
MORGAN, M. K., P. A. JONES, A. M. Calafat, X. Ye, C. W. CROGHAN, J. C. Chuang, N. K. WILSON, M. CLIFTON, Z. FIGUEROA, AND L. S. SHELDON. Assessing the Quantitative Relationships between Preschool Children's Exposures to Bisphenol A by Route and Urinary Biomonitoring. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 45(12):5309-5316, (2011).
The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA′s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD′s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA′s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.
Limited published information exists on young children’s exposures to bisphenol A (BPA) in the United States using urinary biomonitoring. In a previous project, we quantified the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children to BPA in environmental and personal media over 48-h periods in 2000-2001 at homes and daycares in North Carolina and Ohio. In the present study for 81 Ohio preschool children ages 23-64 months, we quantified the children’s urinary total BPA (free and conjugated) concentrations over these same 48-h periods in 2001. Then, we examined the quantitative relationships between the children’s intakes doses of BPA through the dietary ingestion, nondietary ingestion, and inhalation routes and their excreted amounts of urinary BPA. BPA was detected in 100% of the urine samples. The estimated median intake doses of BPA for these 81 children were 109 ng/kg/day (dietary ingestion), 0.06 ng/kg/day (nondietary ingestion), and 0.27 ng/kg/day (inhalation); their estimated median excreted amount of urinary BPA was 114 ng/kg/day. Our multivariable regression model showed that dietary intake of BPA (p = 0.04) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.004) were significant predictors of urinary BPA excretion, collectively explaining 17% of the variability in excretion. Dietary ingestion of BPA accounted for >95% of the children’s excreted amounts of urinary BPA.
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