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Nano Titanium Dioxide Environmental Matters: State of the Science Literature Review
VARNER, K. E., K. Rindfusz, A. Gaglione, AND E. Viveiros. Nano Titanium Dioxide Environmental Matters: State of the Science Literature Review. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-10/089, 2010.
The rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology offers potential benefits to almost all industries and products. According to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars’ Project on Emerging Nanotechnology, nanomaterials are currently being used in over 1,000 consumer products. Metal oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) are some of the many materials that are manufactured and used as engineered nanomaterials in increasing quantities. TiO 2 has been used for decades in consumer products such as sunscreens at the micro- and macroscale. Recently, scientific breakthroughs now allow TiO2 to be economically produced at the nanoscale and incorporated into a variety of consumer products. This increased use of nano-TiO2 has raised concerns regarding the potential exposures and subsequent human health and environmental effects.
The purpose of this report is to compile and summarize currently-available information pertaining to the manufacturing, processing, use, and end-of-life for nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). The focus of the report is to identify, summarize, and present information; rather than to perform a critical evaluation of the results. The intent is to provide this information to the scientific community such that it can be used to complete an exposure assessment and evaluate the human health and toxicity of nano-TiO2 throughout its life cycle as it is manufactured and introduced into the domestic market place and subsequently the environment.