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A New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enterovirus and Norovirus from Large Volumes of Water - MCEARD
Karim, M., E. RHODES, N. BRINKMAN, L. J. WYMER, AND G. FOUT. A New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enterovirus and Norovirus from Large Volumes of Water - MCEARD. Presented at ASM Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, June 01 - 05, 2008.
This task directly supports the 2003 Drinking Water Research Program Multi-Year Plan's long term goal 2 to "develop new data, innovative tools and improved technologies to support decision making by the Office of Water on the Contaminant Candidate List and other regulatory issues” under GRPA Goal 2 (Clean and Safe Water). The overarching objective is to provide Agency scientists, risk assessors, and regulators as well as to individuals outside of the Agency that work in the field of drinking water quality the methods they need to measure the occurrence of waterborne viral pathogens. The method improvements will facilitate the development of risk-based assessments and tools used by the Agency to set regulations, policies and priorities for protecting human health.
The detection of enteric viruses in environmental water usually requires the concentration of viruses from large volumes of water. The 1MDS electropositive filter is commonly used for concentrating enteric viruses from water but unfortunately these filters are not cost-effective for routine viral monitoring. In this study, an inexpensive electropositive cartridge filter, the Nanoceram® filter, was evaluated for its ability to concentrate enterovirus and norovirus from large volumes of water. In initial experiments, one hundred liters of deionized water was seeded with 105 PFU of poliovirus 1 and concentrated using the same adsorption-elution procedure used for the 1 MDS filter. The mean retention of seeded poliovirus by Nanoceram® filters was 84 percent. To optimize the elution procedure, six protocols, each comprised of two successive elutions with varying lengths of filter emersion, were evaluated. There was a significant difference among the elution procedures tested (p=0.025). The highest virus recovery (77%) was obtained by immersing the filters in beef extract for 1 min during the first elution and 15 minutes during the second elution. The recovery efficiencies of poliovirus, coxsackie B5, and echovirus 7 from 100 liters of seeded tap water were 54%, 27%, and 32%, respectively. Finally, virus recoveries by Nanoceram® filters were compared with 1MDS filters using tap water and Ohio River water. The mean recoveries of poliovirus from 100L of tap water using Nanoceram® and 1MDS filters were 51% and 67%, respectively, and the recoveries from Ohio River water were 38% and 36%, respectively. The recoveries of Norwalk virus by Nanoceram® filters from tap and river water was higher than the recoveries by 1MDS filters. These data suggest that Nanoceram® filters can be used as an inexpensive alternative of 1MDS filters for routine viral monitoring of water.