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Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?
Jury, K. L., S. J. Khan, T. Vancov, R. M. Stuetz, AND N. ASHBOLT. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance? CRITICAL REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 41(3):243-270, (2011).
phenomena are identified and experimental approaches are suggested.
1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidazoles 1.1.7. Resistance to glycopeptides 1.1.8. Resistance to aminoglycosides 1.2. How resistance is proliferated among bacteria 2. Bacteria and bacterial resistance in sewers and STPs 3. Conclusions 3.1. Has proliferation of resistance in sewage been conclusively observed? 3.2. Has acquisition of resistance by previously non-resistant bacteria been conclusively observed? 3.3. Has the role of antibiotics in resistant gene transfer in sewage been demonstrated? 3.4. What observations are required to confirm acquisition of resistant genes and the significance of antibiotics in sewage?