You are here:
CHARACTERIZING RESIDUE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES USING A FLUORESCENT IMAGING TECHNIQUE
CohenHubal, E A., J C. Suggs, M. G. Nishioka, AND W. Ivancic. CHARACTERIZING RESIDUE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES USING A FLUORESCENT IMAGING TECHNIQUE. JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY. Nature Publishing Group, London, Uk, , 1-10, (2004).
1. To identify those pesticides, pathways, and activities that represent the highest potential exposures to children;
2. To determine the factors that influence pesticide exposures to children;
3. To develop methods for measuring multimedia exposures to children, including methods that account for important activities that take place in home, school, and day care settings;
4. To generate data on multimedia pesticide concentrations, pesticide biomarkers, and exposure factors that can be used as inputs to aggregate exposure models for children.
To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and indirect ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study to identify the important parameters for characterizing these transfers was designed. A fluorescence imaging system was developed (Ivancic et.al., in press) to facilitate collection of surface residue transfer data for repeated contacts. Next, parameters that affect residue transfer from surface-to-skin, skin-to-other objects, and skin-to-mouth were evaluated using the imaging system and the fluorescent tracer riboflavin as a surrogate for pesticide residues. Riboflavin was applied as a residue to surfaces of interest. Controlled transfer experiments were conducted by varying contact parameters with each trial. The mass of a tracer transferred was measured and the contact surface area estimated using video imaging techniques. Parameters evaluated included: surface type, surface loading, contact motion, pressure, duration, and skin condition. Transfers both onto, and off of, the hand were measured. To efficiently identify parameter changes resulting in significant effects, the Youden ruggedness test was used to select the combination of parameters varied in each contact trial. In this way, more than one parameter could be varied at a time and the number of trials required was minimized. Results of this study showed that surface loading and skin condition (significant at alpha =.05) are among the important parameters for characterizing residue transfers of riboflavin. Duration of contact within the time range investigated does not have a significant effect on transfer of this tracer. Results of this study demonstrate the potential for collecting dermal transfer data using the Ivancic et. al. fluorescence imaging system and provide preliminary data to reduce uncertainty associated with estimating dermal exposures resulting from contact with residue-contaminated surfaces. These data will also aid in determining what additional residue transfer data should be collected and what type of microactivity data are needed to estimate dermal and indirect ingestion exposure to residues on household surfaces.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development funded and managed the research described here under contract number 68-D-99-011 to Battelle. It has been subjected to Agency review and approved for publication.