The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction
Chan, E., B. Buckley, A. Farraj, AND L. Thompson. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, Holland, , 1-16, (2016).
We propose and support the novel hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine signaling systems, such as endothelins, mediate cardiac dysfunction following particulate matter exposure, and encourage researchers to investigate this as a potential biological mechanism in the field of air pollution-induced cardiovascular dysfunction.
Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction have been explored, though linkage with specific factors or genes remains limited. Given evidence pointing to autocrine/paracrine signaling systems as modulators of cardiac dysfunction, the present review highlights the emerging role of endothelins as mediators of cardiac dysfunction following particulate matter exposure. Endothelin-1 is a small multifunctional protein expressed in the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, known for its ability to constrict blood vessels. Although endothelin-1 can also directly and indirectly (via secondary signaling events) modulate cardiac contractility, heart rate, and rhythm, research on the role of endothelins in the context of air pollution has tended to focus on the vascular effects. The plausibility of endothelin as a mechanism underlying particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction is further supported by the therapeutic utility of certain endothelin receptor antagonists. Extravascular effects of endothelin on the heart could better explain one mechanism by which particulate matter exposure may lead to cardiac dysfunction.
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